Chapter 1: Introducing Critical Applied Linguistics
1.1 CRITICAL APPLIED LINGUISTICS CONCERNS
1.1.1 Applied Linguistics
Strong version of applied linguistics, semi-autonomous, interdisciplinary
Avoiding "theory-into-practice" direction, "continuous reflexive integration of thought, desire and action (p. 3)"
1.1.3 Being Critical
Critical thinking, emancipatory modernism, problematizing practice
1.1.4 Micro and Macro Relations
Macro issues: society, ideology, global capitalism, colonialism, education, gender, racism, sexuality, class
Micro issues: classroom utterance, translations, conversations, genres, second language acquisition, media texts
1.1.5 Critical Social Inquiry
Access, power, disparity, desire, difference, resistance, historical understanding
1.1.6 Critical Theory
"Taking social inequality and social transformation as central to one's work. (p. 6)"
"It is perhaps compassion, but a compassion grounded in a sharp critique of inequality, that grounds our work. (p. 7)"
1.1.7 Problematizing Givens
"It is unwilling to accept the taken-for-granted components of our reality and the 'official' accounts of how they came to be the way they are." Quotation from Dean, M. (1994). Critical and effective histories: Foucault's methods and historical sociology. London: Routledge. (p. 4)
"To maintain a greater sense of humility and difference and to raise questions about the limits of its own knowing (p. 8)."
1.1.9 Preferred Futures
Not 'utopian' visions of alternative realities, but "a slightly more restrained and plural view of where we might want to head (p. 8)."
"Heterosis as the creative expansion of possibilities resulting from hybridity (p. 9)."
1.2 DOMAINS OF CRITICAL APPLIED LINGUISTICS
"A constant skepticism, a constant questioning of the normative assumptions of applied linguistics (p. 10)."
1.2.1 Critical Discourse Analysis and Critical Literacy
Critical Language Awareness as a combination of CDA and CL.
Compare "Critical Language Awareness" and "Language Awareness"
Have a look at the entry of "Critical literacy" in Wikipedia, where it defines critical literacy as an instructional approach that "encourages readers to actively analyze texts and it offers strategies for uncovering underlying messages."
Critical Language Awareness edited by Norman Fairclough
1.2.2 Critical Approaches to Translation
Politics of translation
Check Minae MIZUMURA's recent essay on Japanese and English.
Wikipedia on Mizumura
1.2.3 Language Teaching
TESOL Quarterly (Volume 33, Number 3, Autumn 1999, Critical Approaches to TESOL) is available from here.
Editor's Note is a very short introduction to this volume.
Pennycook's Introduction to this volume is available from here.
This introductory article aims to pull together the unifying concerns in the varied articles, reports, and discussions in this special issue. I focus on three main themes that may be said to constitute critical approaches to TESOL: (a) the domain or area of interest (To what extent do particular domains define a critical approach?), transformative pedagogy (How does the particular approach to education hope to change things?), and a self-reflexive stance on critical theory (To what extent does the work constantly question common assumptions, including its own?). Whether in terms of the domain in which they operate, the pedagogies they use, or the theories they engage, I argue here for the importance of seeing critical approaches to TESOL not as a static body of knowledge and practices but rather as always being in flux, always questioning, restively problematizing the given, being aware of the limits of their own knowing, and bringing into being new schemas of politicisation. The critical approaches to TESOL developed here can both help us as TESOL professionals understand in much more complex ways the contexts in which TESOL occurs and offer the prospect of change. Given the cultural politics of English teaching in the world, critical approaches to TESOL may help us deal with some of the most significant issues of our time.
Bonny Norton's "Language, Identity, and the Ownership of English" is available from here.
Abstract:Read the section of "Identity and the ownership of English internationally," where she addresses the following questions.
This article serves as the introduction to the special-topic issue of the TESOL Quarterly on Language and Identity. In the first section, I discuss my interest in language and identity, drawing on theorists who have been influential in my work. A short vignette illustrates the significant relationship among identity, language learning, and classroom teaching. In the second section, I examine the five articles in the issue, highlighting notable similarities and differences in conceptions of identity. I note, in particular, the different ways in which the authors frame identity: social identity, sociocultural identity, voice, cultural identity, and ethnic identity. I explore these differences with reference to the particular disciplines and research traditions of the authors and the different emphases of their research projects. In the final section, I draw on the issue as a whole to address a prevalent theme in many of the contributions: the ownership of English internationally. The central question addressed is the extent to which English belongs to White native speakers of standard English or to all the people who speak it, irrespective of linguistic and sociocultural history. I conclude with the hope that the issue will help address the current fragmentation in the literature on the relationship between language and identity and encourage further debate and research on a thought-provoking and important topic.
1. What is the relationship between native and nonnative ESL teachers?
How is race implicated in this relationship?
2. How are ESL learners categorized?
3. What is the relationship between standard and nonstandard speakers
4. Do TESOL educators perpetuate Western cultural hegemony in
different parts of the world?
See the table of content of this volume of TESOL Quarterly (Volume 31, Number 3, Autumn 1997)
Bonny Norton wrote and edited books.
For further reading, there's Canagarajah's Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching.
1.2.4 Language Testing
Shohamy (1997, p. 2): "the act of language testing is not neutral. Rather, it is a product and agent of cultural, social, political, educational and ideological agendas that shape the lives of individual participants, teachers, and learners" (Critical language testing and beyond. Plenary address to the American Association of Applied Linguistics, Orland, FL.)
1.2.5 Language Planning and Language Rights
Cameron (1995, pp. 15-16): "Sociolinguistics says that how you act depends on who you are; critical theory says that who you are (and are taken to be) depends on how you act."
Verbal Hygine: Politics of Language London: Routledge.
Robert Phillipson (1992) Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Phillipson, R., & Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1996). English Only Worldwide or Language Ecology? TESOL Quarterly, 30, 429-452. is available from here.
The multilingualisms of the United Nations, the European Union, and postcommunist Europe are very different phenomena. English plays a key role in each and is being actively promoted. The language map of Europe and linguistic hierarchies are evolving and are in need of scrutiny so that research and policy in Europe can benefit from insights that come from theoretically informed study of language planning, policy, and legislation. Overall there seem to be two language policy options, a diffusion-of-English paradigm and an ecology-of-language paradigm. The first is characterized by triumphant capitalism, its science and technology, and a monolingual view of modernization and internationalization. The ecology-of-language paradigm involves building on linguistic diversity worldwide, promoting multilingualism and foreign language learning, and granting linguistic human rights to speakers of all languages. This article explores the assumptions of both paradigms and urges English language teaching professionals to support the latter.
1.2.6 Literacy, and Workplace Settings
Questions of access, power, disparity, and difference.
Have a look at ABE Yasushi's Japanese article on the use of Chinese characters in Japanese.
(Abe also provides a good web resource site on sociolinguistic papers in Japanese.)
1.3 CONCLUSION: WHY CRITICAL APPLIED LINGUISTICS?
"My goal here is not to develop a model for critical applied linguistics. Rather, my aim is to explore its complexities. (p. 21)"