Saturday, May 3, 2008

"The Human Condition" by Hannah Arendt


Vita activa oder Vom tätigen Leben
The Human Condition


Einleitende Bemerkungen

ErstesKapitel: Die menschliche Bedingtheit
I. The Human Condition
第一章 人間の条件

Zweites Kapitel: Der Raum des Öffentlichen und der Bereich des Privaten
II. The Public and the Private Realm
第二章 公的空間と私的領分

Drittes Kapitel: Die Arbeit
III. Labor
第三章 労働

Viertes Kapitel: Das Herstellen
IV. Work
第四章 制作

Fünftes Kapitel: Das Handeln
V. Action
第五章 活動

Sechstes Kapitel: Die Vita activa und die Neuzeit
VI. The Vita Activa and the Modern Age
第六章 行動的生活と近代


The tree important types of Vita Activa (tätigen Leben) or human activities are labor (Arbeit), work (Herstellen) and action (Handeln). Labor (Arbeit) is a struggle for biological survival, whereas work (Herstellen) is producing artifial things. In the modern time, labor was regarded as primary and it subsumed work and turned the latter into a never-ending consuming process. According to Arendt, society in the modern time is considered almost as one entity where private wealth is pursued by labor (and work). Thus we are seeing the disappearance of public realm (der Raum des Öffentlichen). However, it is only in the public realm where human beings feels reality and found themselves among others. Human beings appears in the world through action (Handeln), that is mostly performed by speech (Sprache). Speech, action and the public realm are absolutely necessary for human beings, for one of the most important human conditions is plurality, or the fact that we live together as different beings.

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